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#+TITLE: =dstar2tgba=
Alexandre Duret-Lutz's avatar
Alexandre Duret-Lutz committed
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#+EMAIL: spot@lrde.epita.fr
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#+OPTIONS: H:2 num:nil toc:t
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#+LINK_UP: tools.html
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This tool converts deterministic Rabin and Streett automata, presented
in [[http://www.ltl2dstar.de/docs/ltl2dstar.html][the format output by =ltl2dstar=]], into Büchi automata.

It's usage is almost similar to [[file:ltl2tgba.org][=ltl2tgba=]] except that instead of
supplying a formula to translate, you should specify a filename
containing the deterministic Rabin or Streett automaton to convert.

* Two quick examples

Here are some brief examples before we discuss the behavior of
=dstar2tgba= in more detail.

** From Rabin to Büchi

The following command instructs =ltl2dstar= to:
1. run =ltl2tgba -sD= to build a Büchi automaton for =Fa & GFb=, and then
2. convert that Büchi automaton into a deterministic Rabin automaton
   (DRA) stored in =fagfb=.
Additionally we use =ltlfilt= to convert our formula to the
prefix format used by =ltl2dstar=.

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports node
ltlfilt -f 'Fa & GFb' -l | ltl2dstar --ltl2nba=spin:../../src/bin/ltl2tgba@-sD - fagfb
#+END_SRC

By looking at the file =fagfb= you can see the =ltl2dsar= actually
produced a 3-state DRA:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports both
cat fagfb
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
#+begin_example
DRA v2 explicit
Comment: "Safra[NBA=3]"
States: 3
Acceptance-Pairs: 1
Start: 1
AP: 2 "a" "b"
---
State: 0
Acc-Sig: +0
2
2
0
0
State: 1
Acc-Sig:
1
0
1
0
State: 2
Acc-Sig:
2
2
0
0
#+end_example

=dstar2tgba= can now be used to convert this DRA into a TGBA, a BA, or
a Monitor, using the same options as [[file:ltl2tgba.org][=ltl2tgba=]].

For instance here is the conversion to a Büchi automaton (=-B=) in [[http://http://www.graphviz.org/][GraphViz]]'s format:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports both
dstar2tgba -B fagfb
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
#+begin_example
digraph G {
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  rankdir=LR
  I [label="", style=invis, width=0]
  I -> 0
  0 [label="0"]
  0 -> 0 [label="!a"]
  0 -> 1 [label="a"]
  1 [label="1", peripheries=2]
  1 -> 1 [label="b"]
  1 -> 2 [label="!b"]
  2 [label="2"]
  2 -> 1 [label="b"]
  2 -> 2 [label="!b"]
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}
#+end_example

Which can be rendered as:

#+NAME: fagfb2ba
#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports none
dstar2tgba -B fagfb | sed 's/\\/\\\\/'
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS: fagfb2ba
#+begin_example
digraph G {
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  rankdir=LR
  I [label="", style=invis, width=0]
  I -> 0
  0 [label="0"]
  0 -> 0 [label="!a"]
  0 -> 1 [label="a"]
  1 [label="1", peripheries=2]
  1 -> 1 [label="b"]
  1 -> 2 [label="!b"]
  2 [label="2"]
  2 -> 1 [label="b"]
  2 -> 2 [label="!b"]
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}
#+end_example

#+BEGIN_SRC dot :file fagfb2ba.png :cmdline -Tpng :var txt=fagfb2ba :exports results
$txt
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
[[file:fagfb2ba.png]]

But we could as well require the output to be output as a never claim for Spin (option =-s=):

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports both
dstar2tgba -s fagfb
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
#+begin_example
never {
T0_init:
  if
  :: ((!(a))) -> goto T0_init
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  :: ((a)) -> goto accept_S2
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  fi;
accept_S2:
  if
  :: ((b)) -> goto accept_S2
  :: ((!(b))) -> goto T0_S3
  fi;
T0_S3:
  if
  :: ((b)) -> goto accept_S2
  :: ((!(b))) -> goto T0_S3
  fi;
}
#+end_example

** Streett to TGBA
:PROPERTIES:
  :CUSTOM_ID: streett_to_tgba_example
:END:

Here is the translation of =GFa & GFb= to a 4-state Streett automaton:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports both
ltlfilt -f 'GFa & GFb' -l | ltl2dstar --automata=streett --ltl2nba=spin:../../src/bin/ltl2tgba@-sD - gfagfb
cat gfagfb
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
#+begin_example
DSA v2 explicit
Comment: "Streett{Union{Safra[NBA=2],Safra[NBA=2]}}"
States: 4
Acceptance-Pairs: 2
Start: 0
AP: 2 "a" "b"
---
State: 0
Acc-Sig: -0 -1
3
2
1
0
State: 1
Acc-Sig: +0 -1
3
2
1
0
State: 2
Acc-Sig: -0 +1
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2
1
0
State: 3
Acc-Sig: +0 +1
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2
1
0
#+end_example

And now its conversion by =dstar2tgba= to a 2-state Büchi automaton.
We don't pass any option to =dstar2tgba= because converting to TGBA in
GraphViz's format is the default:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports code
dstar2tgba gfagfb
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
#+begin_example
digraph G {
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  rankdir=LR
  I [label="", style=invis, width=0]
  I -> 0
  0 [label="0"]
  0 -> 1 [label="1"]
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  1 [label="1"]
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  1 -> 1 [label="!a & !b"]
  1 -> 1 [label="a & !b\n{0}"]
  1 -> 1 [label="!a & b\n{1}"]
  1 -> 1 [label="a & b\n{0,1}"]
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}
#+end_example

#+NAME: gfagfb2ba
#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports none
dstar2tgba gfagfb | sed 's/\\/\\\\/g'
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS: gfagfb2ba
#+begin_example
digraph G {
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  rankdir=LR
  I [label="", style=invis, width=0]
  I -> 0
  0 [label="0"]
  0 -> 1 [label="1"]
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  1 [label="1"]
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  1 -> 1 [label="!a & !b"]
  1 -> 1 [label="a & !b\\n{0}"]
  1 -> 1 [label="!a & b\\n{1}"]
  1 -> 1 [label="a & b\\n{0,1}"]
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}
#+end_example

#+BEGIN_SRC dot :file gfagfb2ba.png :cmdline -Tpng :var txt=gfagfb2ba :exports results
$txt
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
[[file:gfagfb2ba.png]]

(Obviously the resulting automaton could be simplified further, by
starting with the second state right away.)

* Details

** General behavior

The =dstar2tgba= tool implement a 4-step process:

  1. read the DRA/DSA
  2. convert it into TGBA
  3. postprocess the resulting TGBA (simplifying the automaton, a degeneralizing it into a BA or Monitor if requested)
  4. output the resulting automaton

** Controlling output

The last two steps are shared with =ltl2tgba= and use the same options.

The type of automaton to produce can be selected using the =-B= or =-M=
switches:
#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports results
dstar2tgba --help | sed -n '/Output automaton type:/,/^$/p' | sed '1d;$d'
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
:   -B, --ba                   Büchi Automaton
:   -M, --monitor              Monitor (accepts all finite prefixes of the given
:                              formula)
:       --tgba                 Transition-based Generalized Büchi Automaton
:                              (default)

And these may be refined by a translation intent, should the
post-processor routine had a choice to make:
#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports results
dstar2tgba --help | sed -n '/Translation intent:/,/^$/p' | sed '1d;$d'
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
:   -a, --any                  no preference
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:   -C, --complete             output a complete automaton (combine with other
:                              intents)
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:   -D, --deterministic        prefer deterministic automata
:       --small                prefer small automata (default)

The effort put into post-processing can be limited with the =--low= or
=--medium= options:

#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports results
dstar2tgba --help | sed -n '/Optimization level:/,/^$/p' | sed '1d;$d'
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
:       --high                 all available optimizations (slow, default)
:       --low                  minimal optimizations (fast)
:       --medium               moderate optimizations

For instance using =-a --low= will skip any optional post-processing,
should you find =dstar2tgba= too slow.

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Finally, the output format can be changed with the following
[[file:oaout.org][common ouput options]]:
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#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports results
dstar2tgba --help | sed -n '/Output format:/,/^$/p' | sed '1d;$d'
#+END_SRC
#+RESULTS:
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#+begin_example
  -8, --utf8                 enable UTF-8 characters in output (ignored with
                             --lbtt or --spin)
      --dot[=c|h|n|N|s|t|v]  GraphViz's format (default).  Add letters to chose
                             (c) circular nodes, (h) horizontal layout, (v)
                             vertical layout, (n) with name, (N) without name,
                             (s) with SCCs, (t) always transition-based
                             acceptance.
  -H, --hoaf[=s|t|m|l]       Output the automaton in HOA format.  Add letters
                             to select (s) state-based acceptance, (t)
                             transition-based acceptance, (m) mixed acceptance,
                             (l) single-line output
      --lbtt[=t]             LBTT's format (add =t to force transition-based
                             acceptance even on Büchi automata)
      --name=FORMAT          set the name of the output automaton
  -s, --spin                 Spin neverclaim (implies --ba)
      --spot                 SPOT's format
      --stats=FORMAT         output statistics about the automaton
#+end_example
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The =--stats= options can output statistics about the input and the
output automaton, so it can be useful to search for particular
pattern.

For instance here is a complex command that will

1. generate an infinite stream of random LTL formulas with [[file:randltl.org][=randltl=]],
2. use [[file:ltlfilt.org][=ltlfilt=]] to rewrite the W and M operators away (=--remove-wm=),
   simplify the formulas (=-r=), remove duplicates (=u=) as well as
   formulas that have a size less then 3 (=--size-min=3=),
3. use =head= to keep only 10 of such formula
4. loop to process each of these formula:
   - print it
   - then convert the formula into =ltl2dstar='s input format, process
     it with =ltl2dstar= (using =ltl2tgba= as the actual LTL->BA
     transltor), and process the result with =dstar2tgba= to build a
     Büchi automaton (=-B=), favoring determinism if we can (=-D=),
     and finally displaying some statistics about this conversion.

The statistics displayed in this case are: =%S=, the number of states
of the input (Rabin) automaton, =%s=, the number of states of the
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output (Büchi) automaton, =%d=, whether the output automaton is
deterministic, and =%p= whether the automaton is complete.
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#+BEGIN_SRC sh :results verbatim :exports both
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randltl -n -1 --tree-size=10..14 a b c |
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ltlfilt --remove-wm -r -u --size-min=3 |
head -n 10 |
while read f; do
  echo "$f"
  ltlfilt -l -f "$f" |
  ltl2dstar --ltl2nba=spin:../../src/bin/ltl2tgba@-sD - - |
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  dstar2tgba -B --stats='  DRA: %Sst.; BA: %sst.; det.? %d; complete? %p'
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done
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
#+begin_example
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c U (c & (a | b | (Xc U (a & Xc))))
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  DRA: 3st.; BA: 2st.; det.? 1; complete? 0
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!b | F!c
  DRA: 3st.; BA: 3st.; det.? 1; complete? 1
(!a R F!b) R !b
  DRA: 6st.; BA: 5st.; det.? 1; complete? 0
b U !c
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  DRA: 3st.; BA: 2st.; det.? 1; complete? 0
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GFc
  DRA: 3st.; BA: 3st.; det.? 1; complete? 1
(F!c U a) R !a
  DRA: 6st.; BA: 5st.; det.? 1; complete? 0
b | G!b
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  DRA: 4st.; BA: 3st.; det.? 1; complete? 0
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!a R (!c & (!a | (F!b U (!a & F!b))))
  DRA: 5st.; BA: 4st.; det.? 1; complete? 0
F(a & !b & G!c)
  DRA: 2st.; BA: 3st.; det.? 0; complete? 0
GF!c
  DRA: 3st.; BA: 3st.; det.? 1; complete? 1
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#+end_example

An important point you should be aware of when comparing these numbers
of states is that the deterministic automata produced by =ltl2dstar=
are complete, while the automata produced by =dstar2tgba=
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(deterministic or not) are not complete by default.  This can explain
a difference of one state (the so called "sink" state).

You can instruct =dstar2tgba= to output a complete automaton using the
=--complete= option (or =-C= for short).
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** Conversion from Rabin and Streett to TGBA

The algorithms used to convert Rabin and Streett into TGBA/BA are different.

*** Rabin to BA

The conversion implemented is a variation of Krishnan et al.'s
"Deterministic ω-Automata vis-a-vis Deterministic Büchi Automata"
(ISAAC'94) paper.  They explain how to convert a deterministic Rabin
automaton (DRA) into a deterministic Büchi automaton (DBA) when such
an automaton exist.  The surprising result is that when a DRA is
DBA-realizable, a DBA can be obtained from the DRA without changing
its transition structure.

Spot implements a slight refinement to the above technique: any DRA
will be converted into a BA, and the determinism will be conserved
only in strongly connected components where determinism can be
conserved.

*** Streett to TGBA

Streett automata are converted into non-deterministic TGBA.
When a Streett automaton uses multiple acceptance pairs, we use
generalized acceptance conditions in the TGBA to limit the combinatorial
explosion.

A straightforward translation from Streett to BA, as described for
instance by [[http://www.automata.rwth-aachen.de/~loeding/diploma_loeding.pdf][Löding's diploma thesis]], will create a BA with
$|Q|\cdot(4^n-3^n+2)$ states if the input Streett automaton has $|Q|$
states and $n$ acceptance pairs.  Our translation to TGBA limits this
to $|Q|\cdot(2^n+1)$ states.

Sometimes, as in the [[#streett_to_tgba_example][example for =GFa & GFb=]] the output of this
conversion will happen to be deterministic.  Let's say that this is
luck: Spot does not implement any algorithm to preserve the
determinism of Streett automata.