Commit 07e714e1 authored by Alexandre Duret-Lutz's avatar Alexandre Duret-Lutz

upgrade utfcpp to v2.3.5

From https://github.com/nemtrif/utfcpp/releases/tag/v2.3.5

* utf8/utf8.h, utf8/utf8/checked.h, utf8/utf8/core.h,
utf8/utf8/unchecked.h: Update.
* utf8/doc/utf8cpp.html, utf8/doc/ReleaseNotes: Delete.
* utf8/README.md: New file.
* Makefile.am: Adjust.
parent b81d7e58
## -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
## Copyright (C) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Laboratoire de
## Recherche et Développement de l'Epita (LRDE).
## Copyright (C) 2011-2017 Laboratoire de Recherche et Développement
## de l'Epita (LRDE).
## Copyright (C) 2003, 2005 Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6 (LIP6),
## département Systèmes Répartis Coopératifs (SRC), Université Pierre
## et Marie Curie.
......@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ endif
SUBDIRS = picosat buddy lib ltdl spot bin tests $(PYTHON_SUBDIR) doc \
$(NEVER_SUBDIRS)
UTF8 = utf8/doc/ReleaseNotes utf8/doc/utf8cpp.html utf8/utf8.h \
UTF8 = utf8/README.md utf8/utf8.h \
utf8/utf8/checked.h utf8/utf8/core.h utf8/utf8/unchecked.h
DEBIAN = \
......
# UTF8-CPP: UTF-8 with C++ in a Portable Way
## Introduction
Many C++ developers miss an easy and portable way of handling Unicode encoded strings. The original C++ Standard (known as C++98 or C++03) is Unicode agnostic. C++11 provides some support for Unicode on core language and library level: u8, u, and U character and string literals, char16_t and char32_t character types, u16string and u32string library classes, and codecvt support for conversions between Unicode encoding forms. In the meantime, developers use third party libraries like ICU, OS specific capabilities, or simply roll out their own solutions.
In order to easily handle UTF-8 encoded Unicode strings, I came up with a small, C++98 compatible generic library. For anybody used to work with STL algorithms and iterators, it should be easy and natural to use. The code is freely available for any purpose - check out the license at the beginning of the utf8.h file. The library has been used a lot in the past ten years both in commercial and open-source projects and is considered feature-complete now. If you run into bugs or performance issues, please let me know and I'll do my best to address them.
The purpose of this article is not to offer an introduction to Unicode in general, and UTF-8 in particular. If you are not familiar with Unicode, be sure to check out [Unicode Home Page](http://www.unicode.org/) or some other source of information for Unicode. Also, it is not my aim to advocate the use of UTF-8 encoded strings in C++ programs; if you want to handle UTF-8 encoded strings from C++, I am sure you have good reasons for it.
## Examples of use
### Introductionary Sample
To illustrate the use of the library, let's start with a small but complete program that opens a file containing UTF-8 encoded text, reads it line by line, checks each line for invalid UTF-8 byte sequences, and converts it to UTF-16 encoding and back to UTF-8:
```cpp
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include "utf8.h"
using namespace std;
int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
if (argc != 2) {
cout << "\nUsage: docsample filename\n";
return 0;
}
const char* test_file_path = argv[1];
// Open the test file (contains UTF-8 encoded text)
ifstream fs8(test_file_path);
if (!fs8.is_open()) {
cout << "Could not open " << test_file_path << endl;
return 0;
}
unsigned line_count = 1;
string line;
// Play with all the lines in the file
while (getline(fs8, line)) {
// check for invalid utf-8 (for a simple yes/no check, there is also utf8::is_valid function)
string::iterator end_it = utf8::find_invalid(line.begin(), line.end());
if (end_it != line.end()) {
cout << "Invalid UTF-8 encoding detected at line " << line_count << "\n";
cout << "This part is fine: " << string(line.begin(), end_it) << "\n";
}
// Get the line length (at least for the valid part)
int length = utf8::distance(line.begin(), end_it);
cout << "Length of line " << line_count << " is " << length << "\n";
// Convert it to utf-16
vector<unsigned short> utf16line;
utf8::utf8to16(line.begin(), end_it, back_inserter(utf16line));
// And back to utf-8
string utf8line;
utf8::utf16to8(utf16line.begin(), utf16line.end(), back_inserter(utf8line));
// Confirm that the conversion went OK:
if (utf8line != string(line.begin(), end_it))
cout << "Error in UTF-16 conversion at line: " << line_count << "\n";
line_count++;
}
return 0;
}
```
In the previous code sample, for each line we performed a detection of invalid UTF-8 sequences with `find_invalid`; the number of characters (more precisely - the number of Unicode code points, including the end of line and even BOM if there is one) in each line was determined with a use of `utf8::distance`; finally, we have converted each line to UTF-16 encoding with `utf8to16` and back to UTF-8 with `utf16to8`.
### Checking if a file contains valid UTF-8 text
Here is a function that checks whether the content of a file is valid UTF-8 encoded text without reading the content into the memory:
```cpp
bool valid_utf8_file(const char* file_name)
{
ifstream ifs(file_name);
if (!ifs)
return false; // even better, throw here
istreambuf_iterator<char> it(ifs.rdbuf());
istreambuf_iterator<char> eos;
return utf8::is_valid(it, eos);
}
```
Because the function `utf8::is_valid()` works with input iterators, we were able to pass an `istreambuf_iterator` to it and read the content of the file directly without loading it to the memory first.
Note that other functions that take input iterator arguments can be used in a similar way. For instance, to read the content of a UTF-8 encoded text file and convert the text to UTF-16, just do something like:
```cpp
utf8::utf8to16(it, eos, back_inserter(u16string));
```
### Ensure that a string contains valid UTF-8 text
If we have some text that "probably" contains UTF-8 encoded text and we want to replace any invalid UTF-8 sequence with a replacement character, something like the following function may be used:
```cpp
void fix_utf8_string(std::string& str)
{
std::string temp;
utf8::replace_invalid(str.begin(), str.end(), back_inserter(temp));
str = temp;
}
```
The function will replace any invalid UTF-8 sequence with a Unicode replacement character. There is an overloaded function that enables the caller to supply their own replacement character.
## Reference
### Functions From utf8 Namespace
#### utf8::append
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Encodes a 32 bit code point as a UTF-8 sequence of octets and appends the sequence to a UTF-8 string.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
octet_iterator append(uint32_t cp, octet_iterator result);
```
`octet_iterator`: an output iterator.
`cp`: a 32 bit integer representing a code point to append to the sequence.
`result`: an output iterator to the place in the sequence where to append the code point.
Return value: an iterator pointing to the place after the newly appended sequence.
Example of use:
```cpp
unsigned char u[5] = {0,0,0,0,0};
unsigned char* end = append(0x0448, u);
assert (u[0] == 0xd1 && u[1] == 0x88 && u[2] == 0 && u[3] == 0 && u[4] == 0);
```
Note that `append` does not allocate any memory - it is the burden of the caller to make sure there is enough memory allocated for the operation. To make things more interesting, `append` can add anywhere between 1 and 4 octets to the sequence. In practice, you would most often want to use `std::back_inserter` to ensure that the necessary memory is allocated.
In case of an invalid code point, a `utf8::invalid_code_point` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::next
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Given the iterator to the beginning of the UTF-8 sequence, it returns the code point and moves the iterator to the next position.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
uint32_t next(octet_iterator& it, octet_iterator end);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`it`: a reference to an iterator pointing to the beginning of an UTF-8 encoded code point. After the function returns, it is incremented to point to the beginning of the next code point.
`end`: end of the UTF-8 sequence to be processed. If `it` gets equal to `end` during the extraction of a code point, an `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
Return value: the 32 bit representation of the processed UTF-8 code point.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
char* w = twochars;
int cp = next(w, twochars + 6);
assert (cp == 0x65e5);
assert (w == twochars + 3);
```
This function is typically used to iterate through a UTF-8 encoded string.
In case of an invalid UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::invalid_utf8` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::peek_next
Available in version 2.1 and later.
Given the iterator to the beginning of the UTF-8 sequence, it returns the code point for the following sequence without changing the value of the iterator.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
uint32_t peek_next(octet_iterator it, octet_iterator end);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`it`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of an UTF-8 encoded code point.
`end`: end of the UTF-8 sequence to be processed. If `it` gets equal to `end` during the extraction of a code point, an `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
Return value: the 32 bit representation of the processed UTF-8 code point.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
char* w = twochars;
int cp = peek_next(w, twochars + 6);
assert (cp == 0x65e5);
assert (w == twochars);
```
In case of an invalid UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::invalid_utf8` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::prior
Available in version 1.02 and later.
Given a reference to an iterator pointing to an octet in a UTF-8 sequence, it decreases the iterator until it hits the beginning of the previous UTF-8 encoded code point and returns the 32 bits representation of the code point.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
uint32_t prior(octet_iterator& it, octet_iterator start);
```
`octet_iterator`: a bidirectional iterator.
`it`: a reference pointing to an octet within a UTF-8 encoded string. After the function returns, it is decremented to point to the beginning of the previous code point.
`start`: an iterator to the beginning of the sequence where the search for the beginning of a code point is performed. It is a safety measure to prevent passing the beginning of the string in the search for a UTF-8 lead octet.
Return value: the 32 bit representation of the previous code point.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
unsigned char* w = twochars + 3;
int cp = prior (w, twochars);
assert (cp == 0x65e5);
assert (w == twochars);
```
This function has two purposes: one is two iterate backwards through a UTF-8 encoded string. Note that it is usually a better idea to iterate forward instead, since `utf8::next` is faster. The second purpose is to find a beginning of a UTF-8 sequence if we have a random position within a string. Note that in that case `utf8::prior` may not detect an invalid UTF-8 sequence in some scenarios: for instance if there are superfluous trail octets, it will just skip them.
`it` will typically point to the beginning of a code point, and `start` will point to the beginning of the string to ensure we don't go backwards too far. `it` is decreased until it points to a lead UTF-8 octet, and then the UTF-8 sequence beginning with that octet is decoded to a 32 bit representation and returned.
In case `start` is reached before a UTF-8 lead octet is hit, or if an invalid UTF-8 sequence is started by the lead octet, an `invalid_utf8` exception is thrown.
In case `start` equals `it`, a `not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::previous
Deprecated in version 1.02 and later.
Given a reference to an iterator pointing to an octet in a UTF-8 seqence, it decreases the iterator until it hits the beginning of the previous UTF-8 encoded code point and returns the 32 bits representation of the code point.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
uint32_t previous(octet_iterator& it, octet_iterator pass_start);
```
`octet_iterator`: a random access iterator.
`it`: a reference pointing to an octet within a UTF-8 encoded string. After the function returns, it is decremented to point to the beginning of the previous code point.
`pass_start`: an iterator to the point in the sequence where the search for the beginning of a code point is aborted if no result was reached. It is a safety measure to prevent passing the beginning of the string in the search for a UTF-8 lead octet.
Return value: the 32 bit representation of the previous code point.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
unsigned char* w = twochars + 3;
int cp = previous (w, twochars - 1);
assert (cp == 0x65e5);
assert (w == twochars);
```
`utf8::previous` is deprecated, and `utf8::prior` should be used instead, although the existing code can continue using this function. The problem is the parameter `pass_start` that points to the position just before the beginning of the sequence. Standard containers don't have the concept of "pass start" and the function can not be used with their iterators.
`it` will typically point to the beginning of a code point, and `pass_start` will point to the octet just before the beginning of the string to ensure we don't go backwards too far. `it` is decreased until it points to a lead UTF-8 octet, and then the UTF-8 sequence beginning with that octet is decoded to a 32 bit representation and returned.
In case `pass_start` is reached before a UTF-8 lead octet is hit, or if an invalid UTF-8 sequence is started by the lead octet, an `invalid_utf8` exception is thrown
#### utf8::advance
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Advances an iterator by the specified number of code points within an UTF-8 sequence.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator, typename distance_type>
void advance (octet_iterator& it, distance_type n, octet_iterator end);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`distance_type`: an integral type convertible to `octet_iterator`'s difference type.
`it`: a reference to an iterator pointing to the beginning of an UTF-8 encoded code point. After the function returns, it is incremented to point to the nth following code point.
`n`: a positive integer that shows how many code points we want to advance.
`end`: end of the UTF-8 sequence to be processed. If `it` gets equal to `end` during the extraction of a code point, an `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
unsigned char* w = twochars;
advance (w, 2, twochars + 6);
assert (w == twochars + 5);
```
This function works only "forward". In case of a negative `n`, there is no effect.
In case of an invalid code point, a `utf8::invalid_code_point` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::distance
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Given the iterators to two UTF-8 encoded code points in a seqence, returns the number of code points between them.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
typename std::iterator_traits<octet_iterator>::difference_type distance (octet_iterator first, octet_iterator last);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`first`: an iterator to a beginning of a UTF-8 encoded code point.
`last`: an iterator to a "post-end" of the last UTF-8 encoded code point in the sequence we are trying to determine the length. It can be the beginning of a new code point, or not.
Return value the distance between the iterators, in code points.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
size_t dist = utf8::distance(twochars, twochars + 5);
assert (dist == 2);
```
This function is used to find the length (in code points) of a UTF-8 encoded string. The reason it is called _distance_, rather than, say, _length_ is mainly because developers are used that _length_ is an O(1) function. Computing the length of an UTF-8 string is a linear operation, and it looked better to model it after `std::distance` algorithm.
In case of an invalid UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::invalid_utf8` exception is thrown. If `last` does not point to the past-of-end of a UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::utf16to8
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Converts a UTF-16 encoded string to UTF-8.
```cpp
template <typename u16bit_iterator, typename octet_iterator>
octet_iterator utf16to8 (u16bit_iterator start, u16bit_iterator end, octet_iterator result);
```
`u16bit_iterator`: an input iterator.
`octet_iterator`: an output iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-16 encoded string to convert.
`end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-16 encoded string to convert.
`result`: an output iterator to the place in the UTF-8 string where to append the result of conversion.
Return value: An iterator pointing to the place after the appended UTF-8 string.
Example of use:
```cpp
unsigned short utf16string[] = {0x41, 0x0448, 0x65e5, 0xd834, 0xdd1e};
vector<unsigned char> utf8result;
utf16to8(utf16string, utf16string + 5, back_inserter(utf8result));
assert (utf8result.size() == 10);
```
In case of invalid UTF-16 sequence, a `utf8::invalid_utf16` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::utf8to16
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Converts an UTF-8 encoded string to UTF-16
```cpp
template <typename u16bit_iterator, typename octet_iterator>
u16bit_iterator utf8to16 (octet_iterator start, octet_iterator end, u16bit_iterator result);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`u16bit_iterator`: an output iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-8 encoded string to convert. < br /> `end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-8 encoded string to convert.
`result`: an output iterator to the place in the UTF-16 string where to append the result of conversion.
Return value: An iterator pointing to the place after the appended UTF-16 string.
Example of use:
```cpp
char utf8_with_surrogates[] = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88\xf0\x9d\x84\x9e";
vector <unsigned short> utf16result;
utf8to16(utf8_with_surrogates, utf8_with_surrogates + 9, back_inserter(utf16result));
assert (utf16result.size() == 4);
assert (utf16result[2] == 0xd834);
assert (utf16result[3] == 0xdd1e);
```
In case of an invalid UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::invalid_utf8` exception is thrown. If `end` does not point to the past-of-end of a UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::utf32to8
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Converts a UTF-32 encoded string to UTF-8.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator, typename u32bit_iterator>
octet_iterator utf32to8 (u32bit_iterator start, u32bit_iterator end, octet_iterator result);
```
`octet_iterator`: an output iterator.
`u32bit_iterator`: an input iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-32 encoded string to convert.
`end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-32 encoded string to convert.
`result`: an output iterator to the place in the UTF-8 string where to append the result of conversion.
Return value: An iterator pointing to the place after the appended UTF-8 string.
Example of use:
```
int utf32string[] = {0x448, 0x65E5, 0x10346, 0};
vector<unsigned char> utf8result;
utf32to8(utf32string, utf32string + 3, back_inserter(utf8result));
assert (utf8result.size() == 9);
```
In case of invalid UTF-32 string, a `utf8::invalid_code_point` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::utf8to32
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Converts a UTF-8 encoded string to UTF-32.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator, typename u32bit_iterator>
u32bit_iterator utf8to32 (octet_iterator start, octet_iterator end, u32bit_iterator result);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`u32bit_iterator`: an output iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-8 encoded string to convert.
`end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-8 encoded string to convert.
`result`: an output iterator to the place in the UTF-32 string where to append the result of conversion.
Return value: An iterator pointing to the place after the appended UTF-32 string.
Example of use:
```cpp
char* twochars = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88";
vector<int> utf32result;
utf8to32(twochars, twochars + 5, back_inserter(utf32result));
assert (utf32result.size() == 2);
```
In case of an invalid UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::invalid_utf8` exception is thrown. If `end` does not point to the past-of-end of a UTF-8 seqence, a `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::find_invalid
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Detects an invalid sequence within a UTF-8 string.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
octet_iterator find_invalid(octet_iterator start, octet_iterator end);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-8 string to test for validity.
`end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-8 string to test for validity.
Return value: an iterator pointing to the first invalid octet in the UTF-8 string. In case none were found, equals `end`.
Example of use:
```cpp
char utf_invalid[] = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88\xfa";
char* invalid = find_invalid(utf_invalid, utf_invalid + 6);
assert (invalid == utf_invalid + 5);
```
This function is typically used to make sure a UTF-8 string is valid before processing it with other functions. It is especially important to call it if before doing any of the _unchecked_ operations on it.
#### utf8::is_valid
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Checks whether a sequence of octets is a valid UTF-8 string.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
bool is_valid(octet_iterator start, octet_iterator end);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-8 string to test for validity.
`end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-8 string to test for validity.
Return value: `true` if the sequence is a valid UTF-8 string; `false` if not.
Example of use:
```cpp
char utf_invalid[] = "\xe6\x97\xa5\xd1\x88\xfa";
bool bvalid = is_valid(utf_invalid, utf_invalid + 6);
assert (bvalid == false);
```
`is_valid` is a shorthand for `find_invalid(start, end) == end;`. You may want to use it to make sure that a byte seqence is a valid UTF-8 string without the need to know where it fails if it is not valid.
#### utf8::replace_invalid
Available in version 2.0 and later.
Replaces all invalid UTF-8 sequences within a string with a replacement marker.
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator, typename output_iterator>
output_iterator replace_invalid(octet_iterator start, octet_iterator end, output_iterator out, uint32_t replacement);
template <typename octet_iterator, typename output_iterator>
output_iterator replace_invalid(octet_iterator start, octet_iterator end, output_iterator out);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`output_iterator`: an output iterator.
`start`: an iterator pointing to the beginning of the UTF-8 string to look for invalid UTF-8 sequences.
`end`: an iterator pointing to pass-the-end of the UTF-8 string to look for invalid UTF-8 sequences.
`out`: An output iterator to the range where the result of replacement is stored.
`replacement`: A Unicode code point for the replacement marker. The version without this parameter assumes the value `0xfffd`
Return value: An iterator pointing to the place after the UTF-8 string with replaced invalid sequences.
Example of use:
```cpp
char invalid_sequence[] = "a\x80\xe0\xa0\xc0\xaf\xed\xa0\x80z";
vector<char> replace_invalid_result;
replace_invalid (invalid_sequence, invalid_sequence + sizeof(invalid_sequence), back_inserter(replace_invalid_result), '?');
bvalid = is_valid(replace_invalid_result.begin(), replace_invalid_result.end());
assert (bvalid);
char* fixed_invalid_sequence = "a????z";
assert (std::equal(replace_invalid_result.begin(), replace_invalid_result.end(), fixed_invalid_sequence));
```
`replace_invalid` does not perform in-place replacement of invalid sequences. Rather, it produces a copy of the original string with the invalid sequences replaced with a replacement marker. Therefore, `out` must not be in the `[start, end]` range.
If `end` does not point to the past-of-end of a UTF-8 sequence, a `utf8::not_enough_room` exception is thrown.
#### utf8::starts_with_bom
Available in version 2.3 and later. Relaces deprecated `is_bom()` function.
Checks whether an octet sequence starts with a UTF-8 byte order mark (BOM)
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
bool starts_with_bom (octet_iterator it, octet_iterator end);
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`it`: beginning of the octet sequence to check
`end`: pass-end of the sequence to check
Return value: `true` if the sequence starts with a UTF-8 byte order mark; `false` if not.
Example of use:
```cpp
unsigned char byte_order_mark[] = {0xef, 0xbb, 0xbf};
bool bbom = starts_with_bom(byte_order_mark, byte_order_mark + sizeof(byte_order_mark));
assert (bbom == true);
```
The typical use of this function is to check the first three bytes of a file. If they form the UTF-8 BOM, we want to skip them before processing the actual UTF-8 encoded text.
#### utf8::is_bom
Available in version 1.0 and later. Deprecated in version 2.3\. `starts_with_bom()` should be used instead.
Checks whether a sequence of three octets is a UTF-8 byte order mark (BOM)
```cpp
template <typename octet_iterator>
bool is_bom (octet_iterator it); // Deprecated
```
`octet_iterator`: an input iterator.
`it`: beginning of the 3-octet sequence to check
Return value: `true` if the sequence is UTF-8 byte order mark; `false` if not.
Example of use:
```cpp
unsigned char byte_order_mark[] = {0xef, 0xbb, 0xbf};
bool bbom = is_bom(byte_order_mark);
assert (bbom == true);
```
The typical use of this function is to check the first three bytes of a file. If they form the UTF-8 BOM, we want to skip them before processing the actual UTF-8 encoded text.
If a sequence is shorter than three bytes, an invalid iterator will be dereferenced. Therefore, this function is deprecated in favor of `starts_with_bom()`that takes the end of sequence as an argument.
### Types From utf8 Namespace
#### utf8::exception
Available in version 2.3 and later.
Base class for the exceptions thrown by UTF CPP library functions.
```cpp
class exception : public std::exception {};
```
Example of use:
```cpp
try {
code_that_uses_utf_cpp_library();
}
catch(const utf8::exception& utfcpp_ex) {
cerr << utfcpp_ex.what();
}
```
#### utf8::invalid_code_point
Available in version 1.0 and later.
Thrown by UTF8 CPP functions such as `advance` and `next` if an UTF-8 sequence represents and invalid code point.