Commit cb7bdf8c authored by Alexandre Duret-Lutz's avatar Alexandre Duret-Lutz
Browse files

Fix interpretation of {e[*]} and !{e[*]}.

This follows from a discussion with Ernesto Posse.

The semantics for the {...} operator we use in Spot comes from the
cl(...) operator defined by Dax et al. (ATVA'09).  This is slightly
different from the the way the PSL spec interprets a SERE used in the
context of a temporal formula (appendix B.3.1.1.2, item 7).

cl({a;b}[*]) would match any infinite word that starts with a;b, while
in PSL {a;b}[*] would match any infinite word that alternates a and b.

Spot documents that {SERE} in a temporal formula is interpreted like
cl(SERE) however it failed to ignore the empty prefix of SERE.  So
{{a;b}[*]} would match anything, because the empty word is a prefix of
any word, and is also accepted by {a;b}[*].  Some trivial identities
and basic rewritings were also wrongly considering these empty
prefixes as well.

This patch therefore fixes the translation and syntactic
simplification rules, to really ignore these empty prefixes.

In some future version it should probably be wise to rename this {...}
operator as cl(...), and use {...} for the semantics given in appendix
B.3.1.1.2 (item 7) of the PSL specs.

* src/ltlast/unop.cc: Fix trivial identities.  We have
{[*0]} = 0 and !{[*0]} = 1.
* src/ltlvisit/simplify.cc: Fix basic rewriting rules.
{e[*]} = {e} and !{e[*]} = !{e}.
* doc/tl/tl.tex: Adjust documentation.
* doc/tl/tl.bib (dax.09.atva): New entry.
* src/tgbaalgos/ltl2tgba_fm.cc: Do not accept any
infinite word for {e[*]} just because the empty
prefix is matched by e[*].
* src/tgbatest/ltl2tgba.test: Add a test case.
* NEWS: Mention it.
* THANKS: Add Ernesto.
parent 4f986400
......@@ -7,6 +7,13 @@ New in spot 1.1.3a (not released)
- When used from ltlcross, the same parser would fail to
parse further neverclaims after the first failure.
- Add a missing newline in some error message of ltlcross.
- Expressions like {SERE} were wrongly translated and simplified
for SEREs that accept the empty word: they were wrongly reduced
to true. Simplification and translation rules have been fixed,
and the doc/tl/tl.pdf specifications have been updated to better
explain that {SERE} has the semantics of a closure operator that
is not exactly what one could expect after reading the PSL
standard.
New in spot 1.1.3 (2013-07-09)
......
......@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@ suggestions.
Akim Demaille
Christian Dax
Ernesto Posse
Étienne Renault
Felix Klaedtke
František Blahoudek
......
......@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
publisher = {Springer},
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
volume = {7214},
pages = {95--109}
pages = {95--109}
}
@InProceedings{ beer.01.cav,
......@@ -80,6 +80,20 @@
note = {\url{https://es.fbk.eu/people/tonetta/tests/tcad07/}}
}
@InProceedings{ dax.09.atva,
author = {Christian Dax and Felix Klaedtke and Stefan Leue},
title = {Specification Languages for Stutter-Invariant Regular
Properties},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on
Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis
(ATVA'09)},
pages = {244--254},
year = {2009},
volume = {5799},
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
publisher = {Springer-Verlag}
}
@InProceedings{ duret.11.vecos,
author = {Alexandre Duret-Lutz},
title = {{LTL} Translation Improvements in {Spot}},
......
......@@ -833,6 +833,13 @@ is not a model of \samp{$\sere{a\PLUS{}\CONCAT\NOT
a\CONCAT(a\STAR{}\ANDALT(a\STAR{}\CONCAT\NOT a\CONCAT
a\STAR{}))}$} because this SERE does accept any word.
Note that the semantics of $\sere{r}$ comes from the
$\mathsf{cl}(\cdot)$ operator defined by~\citet{dax.09.atva}. This
differs from the interpretation of a SERE in the context of a temporal
formula given by the PSL standard~\citep[Appendix~B.3.1.1.2,
item~7]{psl.04.lrm}: the $\mathit{cl}(\cdot)$ semantics accepts more
words.
\subsection{Syntactic Sugar}\label{sec:pslsugar}
The syntax on the left is equivalent to the syntax on the right.
......@@ -869,8 +876,8 @@ formula $b$, the following rewritings are systematically performed
& \nsere{\1} & \equiv \0 \\
\sere{\eword}\Asuffix f&\equiv \1
& \sere{\eword}\Esuffix f&\equiv \0
& \sere{\eword} & \equiv \1
& \nsere{\eword} & \equiv \0 \\
& \sere{\eword} & \equiv \0
& \nsere{\eword} & \equiv \1 \\
\sere{b}\Asuffix f&\equiv (\NOT{b})\OR f
& \sere{b}\Esuffix f&\equiv b\AND f
& \sere{b} &\equiv b
......@@ -1531,10 +1538,12 @@ denoted with $\equiV$ can be disabled by setting the
Here are basic the rewritings for the weak closure and its negation:
\begin{align*}
\sere{r}&\equiv \1\text{~if~}\varepsilon\VDash r&
\nsere{r}&\equiv \0\text{~if~}\varepsilon\VDash r\\
\sere{r_1;r_2}&\equiv \sere{r_1}\text{~if~}\varepsilon\VDash r_2&
\nsere{r_1;r_2}&\equiv \nsere{r_1}\text{~if~}\varepsilon\VDash r_2\\
\sere{r\STAR{}}&\equiv \sere{r}&
\nsere{r\STAR{}}&\equiv \nsere{r}\\
\sere{r_1;r_2}&\equiv \sere{r_1}\phantom{{}\OR\sere{r_2}}\quad\text{if~}\varepsilon\not\VDash r_1\land\varepsilon\VDash r_2&
\nsere{r_1;r_2}&\equiv \nsere{r_1}\phantom{{}\AND\nsere{r_2}}\quad\text{if~}\varepsilon\not\VDash r_1\land\varepsilon\VDash r_2\\
\sere{r_1;r_2}&\equiv \sere{r_1}\OR\sere{r_2}\quad\text{if~}\varepsilon\VDash r_1\land\varepsilon\VDash r_2&
\nsere{r_1;r_2}&\equiv \nsere{r_1}\AND\nsere{r_2}\quad\text{if~}\varepsilon\VDash r_1\land\varepsilon\VDash r_2\\
\sere{b;r}&\equiV b\AND\X\sere{r}&
\nsere{b;r}&\equiV (\NOT b)\OR\X\nsere{r}\\
\sere{b\STAR{};r}&\equiv b\W\sere{r}&
......
// -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
// Copyright (C) 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Laboratoire de Recherche et
// Développement de l'Epita (LRDE).
// Copyright (C) 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Laboratoire de Recherche
// et Développement de l'Epita (LRDE).
// Copyright (C) 2003, 2005 Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris
// 6 (LIP6), département Systèmes Répartis Coopératifs (SRC),
// Université Pierre et Marie Curie.
......@@ -292,19 +292,19 @@ namespace spot
// {0} = 0, {1} = 1, {b} = b
if (child->is_boolean())
return child;
// {[*0]} = 1
// {[*0]} = 0
if (child == constant::empty_word_instance())
return constant::true_instance();
return constant::false_instance();
break;
case NegClosure:
case NegClosureMarked:
// {1} = 0, {[*0]} = 0
if (child == constant::true_instance()
|| child == constant::empty_word_instance())
// {1} = 0
if (child == constant::true_instance())
return constant::false_instance();
// {0} = 1
if (child == constant::false_instance())
// {0} = 1, {[*0]} = 1
if (child == constant::false_instance()
|| child == constant::empty_word_instance())
return constant::true_instance();
// {b} = !b
if (child->is_boolean())
......
......@@ -1550,16 +1550,17 @@ namespace spot
case unop::Closure:
case unop::NegClosure:
case unop::NegClosureMarked:
// {e} = 1 if e accepts [*0]
// !{e} = 0 if e accepts [*0]
// {e[*]} = {e}
// !{e[*]} = !{e}
if (result_->accepts_eword())
{
result_->destroy();
result_ = ((op == unop::Closure)
? constant::true_instance()
: constant::false_instance());
return;
}
if (const bunop* bo = is_Star(result_))
{
result_ =
recurse_destroy(unop::instance(op,
bo->child()->clone()));
bo->destroy();
return;
}
if (!opt_.reduce_size_strictly)
if (const multop* mo = is_OrRat(result_))
{
......@@ -1578,6 +1579,26 @@ namespace spot
}
if (const multop* mo = is_Concat(result_))
{
if (mo->accepts_eword())
{
if (opt_.reduce_size_strictly)
break;
// If all terms accept the empty word, we have
// {e₁;e₂;e₃} = {e₁}|{e₂}|{e₃}
// !{e₁;e₂;e₃} = !{e₁}&!{e₂}&!{e₃}
multop::vec* v = new multop::vec;
unsigned end = mo->size();
v->reserve(end);
for (unsigned i = 0; i < end; ++i)
v->push_back(unop::instance(op, mo->nth(i)->clone()));
mo->destroy();
result_ = multop::instance(op == unop::Closure ?
multop::Or : multop::And, v);
result_ = recurse_destroy(result_);
return;
}
// Some term does not accept the empty word.
unsigned end = mo->size() - 1;
// {b₁;b₂;b₃*;e₁;f₁;e₂;f₂;e₂;e₃;e₄}
// = b₁&X(b₂&X(b₃ W {e₁;f₁;e₂;f₂}))
......@@ -1601,15 +1622,25 @@ namespace spot
unsigned s = end + 1 - start;
if (s != mo->size())
{
multop::vec* v = new multop::vec;
v->reserve(s);
for (unsigned n = start; n <= end; ++n)
v->push_back(mo->nth(n)->clone());
const formula* tail =
multop::instance(multop::Concat, v);
tail = unop::instance(op, tail);
bool doneg = op != unop::Closure;
const formula* tail;
if (s > 0)
{
multop::vec* v = new multop::vec;
v->reserve(s);
for (unsigned n = start; n <= end; ++n)
v->push_back(mo->nth(n)->clone());
tail = multop::instance(multop::Concat, v);
tail = unop::instance(op, tail);
}
else
{
if (doneg)
tail = constant::false_instance();
else
tail = constant::true_instance();
}
for (unsigned n = start; n > 0;)
{
--n;
......
......@@ -1367,12 +1367,6 @@ namespace spot
{
// rat_seen_ = true;
const formula* f = node->child();
if (f->accepts_eword())
{
res_ = bddtrue;
return;
}
tgba_succ_iterator* i = dict_.transdfa.succ(f);
res_ = bddfalse;
......@@ -1410,11 +1404,6 @@ namespace spot
rat_seen_ = true;
{
const formula* c = node->child();
if (c->accepts_eword())
{
res_ = bddfalse;
return;
}
if (mark_all_)
{
op = unop::NegClosureMarked;
......
......@@ -209,3 +209,11 @@ grep 'states: 4$' stdout
# the following formula to be considered equivalent to anything...
../../bin/ltlfilt -f '!{[*2] && [*0..1]}' --equivalent-to 'false' && exit 1
../../bin/ltlfilt -f '!{[*2] && [*0..1]}' --equivalent-to 'true'
# Test some equivalences fixed in Spot 1.1.4
../../bin/ltlfilt -f '{{a;b}[*]}' --equivalent-to 'a & Xb'
../../bin/ltlfilt -r -f '{{a;b}[*]}' --equivalent-to 'a & Xb'
../../bin/ltlfilt -f '!{{a;b}[*]}' --equivalent-to '!a | X!b'
../../bin/ltlfilt -r -f '!{{a;b}[*]}' --equivalent-to '!a | X!b'
../../bin/ltlfilt -f '{a[*];b[*]}' --equivalent-to 'a | b'
../../bin/ltlfilt -r -f '{a[*];b[*]}' --equivalent-to 'a | b'
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